Writing Style Guide

After you have determined how to best use Utah Tech’s overall voice and the appropriate tone for your specific audience, it is important to follow the University’s style guide to ensure consistency in language and grammar.

The official editorial style manual for Utah Tech University is The Associated Press Stylebook, a storehouse of information about grammar and usage. However, style also requires a good dictionary for spelling and usage issues not covered in the AP Stylebook. The AP-recommended dictionary is Webster’s New World College Dictionary. In most cases, the first spelling choice listed in the dictionary should be used.

The writing style guide below is an abbreviated list of AP Stylebook entries specific to Utah Tech University or frequently used when writing for or about the University. In a few instances, UT strays from AP style to accommodate the academic writing style that befits a university. Those instances are detailed in the guide below. Refer to the most recent edition of The Associated Press Stylebook for a comprehensive guide.

Word Usage

academic degrees: Generic degree terms such as associate degree, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree or doctorate are not capitalized: He has a bachelor’s degree in biology. (Note that it is associate degree, not possessive.) However, capitalize the formal name of degrees: Bachelor of Arts; Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. Avoid abbreviations such as B.A., M.A., Ph.D. when possible. When abbreviations are necessary, include periods.

academic departments: When writing about a UT academic department, capitalize the department name: She is a professor in the Humanities Department. However, when not using the formal department name, do not capitalize: She is studying humanities.

acronyms: Acronyms should be in capital letters with no periods: GPA, ID cards, ROTC, USA. With the exception of well-understood acronyms and abbreviations, such as GPA and USA, spell out the full name or title on first use; do not follow the spelled-out reference with letters in parentheses. On subsequent references, you can use the abbreviation alone. Example: Many students take advantage of the First Year Experience program during their first year at Utah Tech. FYE offers new students the opportunity to explore what Utah Tech has to offer before committing to a major. NOTE: To avoid alphabet soup in an article, a shorter version of the title is often preferred to the acronym: The Multicultural Inclusion Center offers a variety of services to students, and a number of clubs are housed in the center.

adviser: Not advisor.

addresses: Use the abbreviations Ave., Blvd. and St. only with an address: 225 S. University Ave. Spell out and capitalize avenue, boulevard, and street when they are part of a formal street name without a number: University Avenue. Lowercase and spell out when used alone or with more than one street name: St. George and Church boulevards. Never abbreviate similar words such as drive, alley and road. For St. George’s grid system, abbreviate the first direction: 100 S. 100 East. Set off the name of a state with commas when it follows the city name in a sentence: St. George, Utah, is the home of Utah Tech University. When using a mailing address, use standard postal codes.

alumna, alumnae, alumnus, alumni: Alumna is the feminine singular form. Alumnae is the feminine plural. Alumnus is the male (or nonspecific gender) singular. Alumni is the masculine or mixed-gender plural.

Alumni Ambassadors: A student group that upholds traditions, hosts events, and fosters lasting relationships between students and alumni. For example, AA hosts tailgate parties at the Wade Alumni House before every home football game, co-hosts an annual Easter Egg Hunt for faculty and staff’s families, and serves breakfast after the annual whitewashing of the “D” on the Hill each D-Week.

Blaze Dance Team, The: Utah Tech University’s Dance Team.

Blazer Digest: Maintained and distributed by the Utah Tech Student Association, Blazer Digest is placed in bathroom stalls across campus and informs readers of upcoming campus events and deadlines.

Brooks: The name of UT’s athletic mascot. Brooks the Bison was introduced to the community on April 11, 2016, when the University unveiled its new Trailblazers athletic identity, and the mascot costume was unveiled at the first home football game of the 2016 season. Brooks is named after Samuel Brooks, the first student to enroll in the institution — then known as St. George Stake Academy — in 1911. Samuel Brooks slept on the steps of the academy the night before enrollment opened to pay the $10 tuition because he was so excited to attend.

Brooks’ Buddies: A free for kids ages 1-12 organized by Utah Tech Athletics that offers members opportunities to interact with UT student-athletes and coaches.

Canvas: A web-based learning management system used by Utah Tech. It is used by educators and students to access and manage online course learning materials, as well as communicate with one another.

catalog: Not catalogue.

chair: Use the nonsexist terms chair or chairperson, depending on the preference of the individual. AP prefers chairman or chairwoman, but don’t use those unless they are part of an official title.

“Cloud”: The interactive art installation by Christian Moeller is located inside the main entrance of the Holland Centennial Commons. 28 by 22 feet in size, the art piece holds 12,000 linen-bound books in which students, faculty, staff, and visitors can draw or journal to leave their mark and be a part of the University community forever.

coursework: One word.

credits: This is the accepted term at Utah Tech. Don’t use credit hours or hours.

“D” on the Hill (“D” on the black hill): The white “D” on the hill overlooking St. George. The hill is west of Bluff Street, and the “D” is even with Tabernacle Street, in line with the original St. George Stake Academy building. In 1915, civil engineer Leo A. Snow laid out lava rocks to create the “D,” 12 students created a path to it and nearly 100 students filled in the 100-foot tall by 75-foot wide “D” with stones and applied whitewash to it. The “D” was constructed in a display of the ideals of determination, development and devotion and still represents the Dixie Spirit to this day. Thanks to efforts led by the University and Dean of the College of Business Kyle Wells, the “D” was officially listed on the National Register of Historic Places by the National Park Service on May 25, 2022.

D-Day (Whitewash the “D”): The traditional event during D-Week when students, alumni and community members hike up to the “D” on the Hill to whitewash it and eat breakfast together. The tradition started in 1915 when students ate lunch and performed skits on the hill immediately after constructing and whitewashing the “D.”

D-Queen: The winner of the D-Queen pageant, who serves as a positive representative of the University. The pageant has been part of D-Week since 1922 and is more than a typical pageant. Service, community involvement, an interview and academic achievement factor into contestants’ scores with talent, evening wear and essay-writing categories filling the balance.

D-Week: A spirit week full of traditional events similar to Homecoming Week, but held during the spring semester. During D-Week, the “D” on the Hill is lit up red. Because it honors the traditions and history of the University and community, D-Week retained its name after the institution rebranded to Utah Tech University as a nod to the Dixie community’s longstanding support of the University.

dates: Always use numerals without st, nd, rd or th on the end: President Williams’ birthday is March 14, 1971. When a month is used with a specific date, abbreviate only Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. Spell out the month when using a month without a date. The spring semester will begin in January 2017. If the month, date and year are all included, set the year off with commas: Classes started on Aug. 22, 2016, and the students rejoiced. The year is not necessary when referring to something within the current calendar year. When referring to a date that is within the next week, just use the day of the week; when it is further out than that, just use the date: The club will meet on Wednesday and then again on Sept. 21.

Digital ID: Student/faculty/staff ID number.

Dixie Campus: When the Utah State Legislature approved the Utah Tech University name, they also approved the main campus being known as the Dixie Campus in recognition of the local understanding of Washington County being known as Utah’s Dixie. In 1861, leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints called 309 families to create The Dixie Mission in St. George and grow cotton. The nickname persists because of the region’s isolation from the rest of the state and its temperate climate that is comparable to that of the southern region of the U.S.

Dixie’s Got Talent: An annual talent show that raises money for UT need-based scholarships. Contestants go through two rounds of auditions before approximately 20 are chosen to perform in the main event at the M.K. Cox Performing Arts Center, where the audience votes for their favorite performers. Based on judges’ assessments and the audience’s votes, prizes are awarded in youth and adult categories. The event is hosted by the Utah Tech University Foundation and Utah Tech University Alumni Association.

Encampment Mall: The grassy field between the Jennings Communications Building and the Kenneth N. Gardner Student Center. At the north end of the mall, a memorial pays homage to the pioneers who settled right there when they first came to St. George.

The Family Fountain Sculpture Garden: The art installation of statues of a family in a pool of water is south of the Performing Arts Building and was added to campus in 1985. It was donated by Dr. Mervyn and Sue Cox, designed by Day Christensen and sculpted by Dennis Smith.

grades: Use the capital letters, A, B, C, etc., with no quotation marks. Plurals are made by adding s, except in the case of A, which has an apostrophe to avoid confusion with the word as: A’s, Bs, Cs, etc.

Great Race: One of D-Week’s signature events, this relay race is held on the Friday of D-Week each year. Ten-member teams make their way across campus by foot, bicycle, roller blades, water, mud and more. The Great Race started in 1964 as a bicycle race around the black hill and transformed into a relay in the 1970s. In 2000, the tradition was revived on campus and still includes some of the original events.

GPA: Acceptable in all references for grade-point average.

Institute for Continued Learning: A program of classes and activities for lifelong learners. Membership allows participants to take as many courses as they’d like for a nominal fee each semester. Classes are led by volunteers, either retired professionals who have expertise in their subjects or individuals who have skills and interests that they are willing to share. ICL classes are offered from early September through mid-April. There are no tests, grades or required attendance.

international students: Not foreign-exchange students.

Kathryn Lloyd Richards Sculpture Garden: Located north of the Dolores Dorè Eccles Fine Arts Center, the sculpture garden was donated in 2009 by Franklin D. Richards Jr. and Kathryn Lloyd Richards and allows students and visitors to recharge and connect with nature.

Kemp Corner: The collection of University Pavers at the base of University Tower that is named after Greg Kemp.

memory gardens: A picnic table, two benches, and a metal canopy surrounded by native sandstone and complete with electrical outlets and wireless Internet access, memory gardens are tranquil places for students to study while taking advantage of the mild weather and beauty of the campus. Eight memory gardens were built all around campus as part of the centennial celebration that began in 2011 and were dedicated in 2013.

Miss Utah Tech: The traditional pageant during Homecoming Week. Contestants are judged in physical fitness/swimwear, evening wear, talent, an onstage question and personal interview. Miss Utah Tech wins a full-tuition scholarship and the opportunity to represent UT at the Miss Utah Pageant the following summer and compete for a chance to advance to the Miss America Pageant.

MyUT: Student portal where they can see their personal information, student services, and financial aid.

name: The name of the institution officially changed to Utah Tech University on July 1, 2022. The name changed from Dixie State University after the institution started researching the impacts of the Dixie name beginning in July 2020. The comprehensive, two-year-long name recommendation process included partnering with Cicero Group to conduct an impact study that extended over three months and elicited 3,700 responses; gaining support for a name recommendation process from the University’s Cabinet, University Council, Student Executive Council, Staff Association Board, Faculty Senate and Board of Trustees as well as the Utah Board of Higher Education and Utah State Legislature; forming a Name Recommendation Committee; commissioning Love Communications to conduct a name survey that was completed by 14,449 responses; and testing name themes with 450 community members in focus groups. The Name Recommendation Committee, Board of Trustees and Utah Board of Higher Education then recommended Utah Tech University to the Utah State Legislature, who ultimately approved HB2001 in November 2021. Shortly thereafter, Utah Gov. Spencer Cox signed Utah Tech University into law, and the University hired Torch Creative to create logo concepts, which were tested with 600 community members in focus groups. The history of the institution’s name is as follows:

1911-1913 — St. George Stake Academy
1913-1916 — Dixie Academy
1916-1923 — Dixie Normal College
1923-1971 — Dixie Junior College
1971-2000 — Dixie College
2000-2013 — Dixie State College of Utah
2013-2022— Dixie State University
2022- present — Utah Tech University

When writing about the institution in the past, use the name it was called at the time preceded by the modifier “then-named.” Example: She earned an associate degree from then-named Dixie Junior College.

non: Words with the prefix non are generally not hyphenated unless the prefix is directly before a proper noun: nondegree, nonresident, noncredit, non-English speaking.

off campus, on campus: Hyphenate when using as an adjective, not as an adverb. Example:
Off-campus housing is plentiful during the summer.
It’s difficult to find housing off campus during the fall semester.

Opine: An email listserv that reaches faculty and staff who have opted in. This listserv is an opportunity for employees to share nonofficial business and have discussions. Anyone can send messages to the recipients on this list by sending emails to

Outdoor Mosaic Mural: The ceramic tile mural on the west side of the Graff Fine Arts Building. It is a collection of symbols, each representing an important aspect of the Virgin River and its significance to Southern Utah. The mural was created by artist Harrison T. Groutage and mosaicist Hanns Joachim Scharff and measures 15 feet, 4.5 inches by 127 feet, 9 inches.

Palm Street: The pedestrian highway that is lined with palm trees and spans from the Holland Centennial Commons to the Burns Arena.

pre and post: These prefixes generally don’t take hyphens unless they come directly before a proper noun: preregister, premedicine, postbaccalaureate, pre-Columbian.

Pratt & Whitney Fountain: In appreciation of their contributions to education, the University recognized Pratt & Whitney Dependable Engines by dedicating the fountain in the Ernö and Etel Udvar-Hazy School of Business to them in 1996.

President Richard “Biff” Williams: The 18th president of the University was named president on July 17, 2014. In formal University publications, refer to him as President Richard B. Williams on first reference and President Williams on second reference. For more casual products, such as press releases, refer to him as President Richard “Biff” Williams on first reference and Williams on second reference.

President’s Fitness Loop: A system of five walking/jogging trails ranging from .25 to 2 miles in length that weave around and through campus.

President’s Grove: Donated by Dixie College Women’s Association in memory of President Arthur F. Bruhn, the institution’s 10th president who led the institution from 1954 to 1964. Located between the Val A. Browning Learning Resource Center and the Science building, the area is grassy with large trees.

range of time, day or date: The preferred form in body copy is to use words such as “to” and “through” instead of using a dash when referring to a range of time or days of the week. Example: The seminar is scheduled to take place from April 1 to 3. Office hours are Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. In nonsentence form, such as a listing, dashes are acceptable.

Reading Day: The day before Final Exams begin on which no classes are held.

résumé: The preferred spelling includes the diacritical marks and helps avoid confusion with resume.

Rock the Mall: Traditional event at noon on the Friday of Homecoming Week during which students perform different renditions of the school song while competing against each other in a lip-sync/skit contest.

semesters: Lowercase the semester name when referring to a general time of study, but capitalize it when referring to a specific semester: He is taking 15 credits in the spring semester. The Fall 2016 Semester began on Aug. 22.

Southern Utah: Capitalize Southern because it is the proper name of a region.

Stampede, The: The student section at athletic events. The Stampede is its own branch within the UT Student Association.

state names: Spell out the names of states when used alone in text or after the name of a city or county. Do not include the state name when referring to a city of town in Utah. Use the postal service abbreviation and zip code in a complete address. (AP recently has changed to follow this style.)

Student Ambassadors: Utah Tech University Student Ambassadors give campus tours, host overnight visits for high school seniors, and share their experiences as UT students with prospective students across the country.

student housing: This is preferred to dorm or dormitory when referring to on-campus housing units.

theater, theatre: UT’s Theatre Department is spelled the British way, so when referring to the program use the British spelling, but when not referring to the official department, go with the American spelling: UT’s Theatre Department puts on great theater productions.

times: Punctuate times as follows: 7 a.m. or 8:30 p.m.

toward: Not towards.

Trail Tracker: A weekly e-newsletter that is emailed to the entire student body through Student Affairs to inform students of campus events and update them on important dates and information. To contact the Trail Tracker team, email or call 652-7514.

Trailblazer Art in the City: A partnership between UT and the City of St. George that places hand-painted bison statues around the city and at local businesses. The project promotes Utah Tech University, local businesses and the arts while beautifying the city and creating a greater university town environment.

Trailblazers Cafe, The: The cafeteria located in the Kenneth N. Gardner Student Center.

True Trailblazer: Traditional event during both Homecoming and D-Weeks during which students stand in the O.C. Tanner Fountain and may kiss at the stroke of midnight if they choose to do so.

UMAC: Stands for the University Marketing & Communication office, which promotes and protects the UT brand and disseminates information about UT to the world. UMAC manages the University’s photography/videography, public relations, social media, marketing, design, and event & promotion needs. Creative & Visual Services, which uses graphic design student interns to design campus publications, signs, stationary, etc., is also housed under UMAC.

University: In official UT publications, capitalize University when it stands alone and is referring to Utah Tech University, but lowercase it when referring to institutions of higher education in general: She said that she loves Utah Tech and the University is her favorite university in the state. In press releases, always lowercase university.

University Pavers: Made from natural-cut stone, University Pavers line the base of University Tower and Holland Patio at Kemp Corner. Purchased by alumni and community members, pavers are engraved with donors’ names and inspirational quotes of their choosing.

University Tower: Located directly northeast of the Holland Centennial Commons, University Tower is an 85-foot clock tower that emits a beam of light into the sky to represent the beacon of learning, plays music from speakers, and shines in a wide variety of colors.

URLs: It isn’t necessary to include http:// or www. in a URL when it is clear that it’s a Web address. Some sites do, however, require one or both elements of the URL, so test it first. When listing Web addresses, try to get the URL to fit on a single line. If it is necessary to break the URL, try to break it before a slash or period. Don’t allow the URL to break itself by adding a hyphen because that could change the address. Use appropriate punctuation after a URL. If it finishes a sentence, place a period after it.

UTmail: Email service for students to receive updates and news from the university and communicate with teachers and fellow students.

UT Announce: An email listserv that is managed by University Marketing & Communication and reaches all faculty and staff. Employees cannot opt out, so emails must be approved and relate to official university business or events. Emails to be distributed on UT Announce should be sent to

UT Online: Utah Tech’s division that offers online degrees and certificates that are flexible with any schedule and budget.

Utah Tech Student Association (UTSA): UT’s student government is funded by student fees, led by the student body president and composed of six branches: Academics, Clubs & Organizations, Marketing, Service, Stampede and Student Life.

Utah Tech University: Utah Tech University is the only institution of higher learning in the U.S. that welcomes all students to experience the hands-on, career-preparing education that a polytechnic institution provides. Our 200+ programs offer transformative experiences across all disciplines – humanities, arts, education, health sciences, business, and STEM – with the most affordable university tuition in Utah. Our students make, create, and innovate in the classroom and online while gaining real-world active learning experiences through internships, clinical experiences, undergraduate research, industry partnerships, and service learning. As a teaching institution, we meet students where they are, provide personalized learning, and create a caring, supportive community for anyone with a desire to improve their future through education. Students graduate prepared for rewarding careers and enriched lives with the technical, critical thinking, and collaborative skills needed to excel in our ever-changing global economy.

Utah Tech University Foundation: A nonprofit 501(c)3 foundation that exists to support UT and education. Since its inception, the foundation has helped thousands of students by offering need-based scholarships. Funding for these scholarships comes through the annual Fire & Ice Gala, a formal event held in early spring that features silent and live auctions, a nice dinner and entertainment. The foundation has been formerly known as the Dixie Foundation and the Dixie College Foundation.

website: One word, lowercase.

-wide: There is no hyphen when using as a suffix: citywide, nationwide, Universitywide or industrywide.

work-study: Hyphenate; capitalize only when using the formal designation: Federal Work-Study Program.

Campus Buildings

When referring to campus buildings on first reference, use the official name of the building listed below. For subsequent reference, the abbreviated version of the name, which is marked in parentheses below, is acceptable.


Abby Apartments

Atkin Admin Buildings (North Admin, South Admin)

Atwood Innovation Field

Atwood Innovation Plaza (Innovation Plaza)

Booth Wellness Center

Brooks Stop

Browning Learning Resource Center

Burns North Offices (Burns Offices)

Campus View Suites I (Campus View I)

Campus View Suites II (Campus View II)

Chancellor Apartments

Clock Tower

College of Education Building

Cooper Field Building

Dolowitz/Snow Cabin (Cabin)

Eccles Fine Arts Center (Eccles)

Encampment Mall North

Encampment Mall South

Facilities Management

Gardner Student Center (Gardner)

Graff Fine Arts

Greater Zion Stadium

Habibian Athletic Center


Heating Plant

Holland Centennial Commons (Holland)

Human Performance Center (HPC)

Hurricane Education Center

Hurst Baseball Complex

Institute for Continued Learning (ICL)

IT Solutions Center

Jennings Communication (Jennings)

Kanab Education Center

M. Anthony Burns Arena (Burns)

M.K. Cox Performing Arts Center (Cox)

McDonald Center

Nisson Towers

North Commons Building

O.C. Tanner Amphitheater

O.C. Tanner Fountain

O.C. Tanner Fountain Outdoor Stage

Palm Street

Russell C. Taylor Health Science Center (Taylor)

Science, Engineering & Technology (SET)

Smith’s Computer Center (Smith)

Snow Math & Science Center (Snow)

Stephen & Marcia Wade Alumni House (Alumni House)

Student Activity Center (SAC)

Technology Building

Tennis Courts

Trailblazer Sports Medicine Center

Udvar-Hazy Business (Hazy)

University Inn

University Plaza

Water Canyon Center


Ampersands: Don’t use an ampersand in place of the word “and” in text unless it is an official part of a name: University Marketing & Communication.

Bulleted lists: When making a bulleted or numbered list, be sure that capitalization, punctuation and structure are consistent. If items in a list are complete sentences, end each one with appropriate punctuation.

Colons: The colon is used to indicate something is following that will complete or amplify the previous material. It isn’t necessary to capitalize the word immediately following a colon unless it begins a complete sentence of its own or is a proper noun. Don’t use unnecessary colons in sentences.
Correct: Visit the website at
Incorrect: Visit the website at:
Use a colon when the sentence isn’t complete without it.
Visit the Utah Tech website:

Commas: In University products, consistently use the Oxford comma. In press releases, do not use an Oxford comma in a series of more than two items unless it is necessary to clarify the meaning. If more than one series is used in a sentence, separate the series by semicolons if necessary to clarify the sentence.

Set off the name of a state with commas when it follows the city name in a sentence: St. George, Utah, is the home of Utah Tech University.

Commas set off the year in a complete date: May 3, 2013, marked Utah Tech’s first commencement ceremony as a university. There is no comma if only the month and year are used: Utah Tech’s first university commencement ceremony was in May 2013.

Contractions: Although contractions may be discouraged in formal academic writing, they are acceptable in most instances for University news, marketing pieces and websites.

Dashes: The en dash (named because it is the width of the letter “n”) is wider than a hyphen and is used between ranges of dates: The 2016–17 academic year got off to a great start. There are no spaces before or after the en dash. In text, use the missing words instead of a dash: He was at Utah Tech from 1993 to 1998.

The em dash (named because it is the width of the letter “m”) is used to indicate a break in thought or a strong parenthetical phrase: Two professors — a first-year history professor and a tenured English professor — share the teaching duties. There are spaces before and after the em dash. An em dash is indicated by two hyphens in typed material or can be made on a Mac by entering option, shift and dash at the same time.

Exclamation points: Use them sparingly. Never use more than one exclamation point in a paragraph and very seldom use more than one in an article. Never end a single sentence with more than one exclamation point.

Hyphens: Use a hyphen when forming a compound modifier: Utah Tech University is an open-enrollment institution. Note: When an adjective ending in –ly is used, a hyphen is not necessary: Only one bag of groceries fits into the comically small trunk.

Parentheses: Avoid using parentheses when inserting a parenthetical statement into a sentence. Rather, use a set of em dashes: Utah Tech University — an open-enrollment institution — offers more than 150 academic programs.

Quotation marks: Quotation marks are placed outside of commas and periods, but inside of semicolons and colons. Question marks and exclamation marks are placed inside or outside the quotation marks, depending on whether they are part of the quote: Would it be fair to say, “Utah Tech University is the best university in the state”? The professor asked his student, “Did I hear you correctly?”

Avoid using quotation marks around a word because the word isn’t being used literally or to call attention to it or. Rather, choose stronger words that better convey the meaning of the sentence.

Put quotation marks around compositions such as books, computer games, movies, plays, operas, poems, album names, songs, lectures, speeches, works of art, and TV and radio program titles.


course titles: Capitalize course titles when used in text: She is taking Cultures in Conflict this semester.

departments, programs, offices: Capitalize the official names of University departments, programs and offices: Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships, College of the Arts. She is studying in the Humanities Department. Lowercase when not using the official name: financial aid office, the college. She is studying humanities. Don’t capitalize a generic term that follows or precedes more than one name: the Arts and Health Sciences colleges. Don’t capitalize the words program, office, etc., if they are not part of the unit’s official name: University Marketing & Communication office. See the Offices and Departments listing for a official names.

headlines, headings and subheads: For newspapers and websites, only capitalize the first word and proper nouns. For magazines, capitalize each word.

homecoming: Capitalize only when referring to Utah Tech University’s Homecoming.

majors, minors: Lowercase: communication, business administration.

state: Don’t capitalize the word state: state of Utah. Use the same rule with city of St. George.

titles: Capitalize a title when it appears before the person’s name: Professor Fred Smith. Do not capitalize a title when it follows a person’s name: Fred Smith, professor of accounting. The exception to this rule is for a named chair or professorship that contains the academic title or for a faculty member who has earned a title such as Distinguished Professor: Jane Doe, Distinguished Professor of mathematics.


Spell out numbers one through nine within text. Use numerals for higher numbers. Exceptions are made for ages, monetary units, percentages and GPAs, which are always numerals unless they start a sentence: 8 percent, 3.5 GPA, 3-year-old daughter, 7 cents. It’s acceptable to mix uses in a sentence: Utah Tech has 15 intercollegiate athletics programs: nine women’s and six men’s.

Spell out percent instead of using the % symbol: 18 percent

Plurals of numerals are made by adding the letter s: 100s, 1990s. There is no apostrophe in the plurals. Contractions of years take an apostrophe: Class of ’92. Make sure the apostrophe bends outward.

Numbers containing four digits or more (except years) take commas between each series of three numbers: 4,000, 12,297,865. For rounded numbers of more than six digits, it is appropriate to use a figure and a word: $14 million, 237 billion.

Use dollar signs and numerals for monetary references. It’s not necessary to add .00 after whole dollar amounts. If you are just discussing cents, use the word: 5 cents; 47 cents.

Telephone numbers are written with a hyphen between groupings for press releases: 435-652-7500. For University publications, use a period between groupings: 435.652.7500.

Spell out numbers at the start of a sentence unless they represent a year. Avoid starting sentences with numbers if possible. 1776 is the year the Declaration of Independence was signed is permissible, but it would be better to rewrite the sentence to avoid starting with the year: The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.

A series of years should be indicated by using the entire year in the first year and only the last two numbers in the second year: 2015-16. When the years cross a century mark, the entire year must be used: 1999-2002.